Monday, September 13, 2010

list of etheogens

List of entheogens
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This is a list of species and genera that are used as entheogens or are used in an entheogenic concoction (such as ayahuasca). The active principals and historical significance of each is also listed to illustrate the requirements necessary to be categorized as an entheogen.

* 1 Fauna
* 2 Flora
* 3 Fungi
* 4 See also
* 5 References

[edit] Fauna
Common name (binomial nomenclature for species or genus)↓ Psychoactive or other entheogenic agent(s)↓ Regions/Cultures of use↓
Bufo 5-MeO-DMT and Bufotenin Controversial interpretation of Mesoamerican art. See Bufotenin#History.
[edit] Flora
Common name↓ Binomial nomenclature for species or genus↓ Psychoactive or other entheogenic agent(s)↓ Regions/Cultures of use↓
African Dream Root Silene capensis Possibly triterpenoid saponins Xhosa people of South Africa.
Vine of Souls or Ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi MAOI β-carbolines: harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine. South America; people of the Amazon Rainforest. União do Vegetal of Brazil and United States. Use within Ayahuasca.
Blue Egyptian water lily Nymphaea caerulea Nuciferine and aporphine Possibly ancient Egypt and South America.
Angel Trumpet Brugmansia Scopolamine and atropine. South America.
Ganja, Grass, Herb, Marijuana, Weed, etc. Cannabis Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids Sadhus of India. See also Religious and spiritual use of cannabis.
Chaliponga, Chagropanga and, in parts of Ecuador, Chacruna (Psychotria viridis also has that name) Diplopterys cabrerana/Banisteriopsis rusbyana DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, Bufotenine, Methyltryptamine, and N-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as part of Ayahuasca.
Harmal Peganum harmala MAOI β-carbolines: Harmane, harmala, harmaline, harmalol, and tetrahydroharmine. Turkey and the Middle East.
Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa LSA. May not be an entheogen. Possibly used by Hawaiian natives.[1]
Henbane/Witches Herb Hyoscyamus niger Hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and other tropane alkaloids. Ancient Greece and witches of the Middle Ages.
Peruvian Torch cactus Echinopsis peruviana/Trichocereus peruvianus Mescaline Pre-Incan Chavín rituals in Peru.
Iboga Tabernanthe iboga Ibogaine and other indole alkaloids. Bwiti religion of West Central Africa.
Morning Glory Ipomoea tricolor (from the convolvulaceae family) LSA Aztecs, Mazatec
Belladonna, Deadly nightshade Atropa belladonna Atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Europe
Jimsonweed Datura stramonium Atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Native Americans: Algonquin and Luiseño. Sadhus of India. Táltos of the Magyar (Hungary).
Kava Piper methysticum Kavalactones Oceania
Kawakawa/Maori kava Macropiper excelsum Myristicin and elemicin. Māori
Mapacho Nicotiana rustica Nicotine and MAOI β-carbolines: harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine. South America
Mandragora Mandragora officinarum Atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Possibly used by European witches in Middle Ages.
Jurema, Jurema Preta, Black Jurema, and Vinho de Jurema Mimosa tenuiflora DMT and Yuremamine Northeastern Brazil.
Peyote Lophophora williamsii Mescaline Oshara Tradition
Chacruna (Diplopterys cabrerana also has that name) or Chacrona Psychotria viridis DMT, MAOI β-Carbolines, and MMT. Vegetalistas of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and the Brazilian church Santo Daime have used it as part of Ayahuasca.
Diviner's Sage, Sage of the Seers, Seer's sage, and Ska María Pastora Salvia Divinorum Salvinorin A Mazatec
San Pedro cactus Echinopsis pachanoi Mescaline South America
Ololiqui, Morning Glory Turbina corymbosa/Rivea corymbosa (from the convolvulaceae family) LSA Mazatec[2]
Vilca Anadenanthera colubrina Bufotenin, 5-MEO-DMT, and N-N-DMT. South America
N/A Virola elongata/Virola theiodora 5-MEO-DMT, N-N-DMT, and MAOI β-carbolines. South America
Yopo Anadenanthera peregrina Several DMT related substances. South America
[edit] Fungi
Common name (binomial nomenclature for species or genus)↓ Psychoactive or other entheogenic agent(s)↓ Regions/Cultures of use↓
Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) [3] Muscimol Siberian shamans. Scandinavia. Possibly the Soma drink of India.
Magic Mushroom (Psilocybe) Psilocybin Mazatec
Boletus manicus Unknown indolic substances. Papua New Guinea
[edit] See also

* Entheogen
* Entheogenic drugs and the archaeological record
* Ethnobotany
* Psychedelic plants

[edit] References

1. ^ Stafford, Peter (January 12, 1993). Psychedelics Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). Ronin Publishing. ISBN 978-0914171515.
2. ^
3. ^ Heinrich, C (1995). Strange Fruit: Alchemy and Religion- The Hidden Truth. London : Bloomsbury. Referenced throughout ISBN 978-0747515487

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Categories: Entheogens | Drug-related lists
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